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7 types of phishing you should know about

The prevalence of phishing attacks has become a serious concern for individuals and organizations alike. Phishing, a form of cybercrime that attempts to deceive individuals into divulging sensitive information, comes in various sophisticated forms. Understanding the different types of phishing and how to identify them is crucial for safeguarding personal and corporate data.

Email phishing

One of the most common types of phishing is email phishing, where attackers send seemingly trustworthy emails containing malicious attachments or links that, when opened, inject malware into the recipient’s system.

For instance, you might receive an email from your bank, urging you to click on a link to confirm your account details due to a supposed security breach. The email contains a malicious link that, once clicked, redirects you to a fake website designed to steal your login credentials and personal information.

To identify email phishing, scrutinize the sender’s email address for any discrepancies, check for grammatical errors, and avoid clicking on suspicious links or downloading unknown attachments. Genuine organizations usually do not request sensitive information via email.


Targeting specific individuals or departments, spear-phishing aims to extract sensitive data from a particular organization. For instance, an employee in the finance department of a company receives an email from what appears to be the CEO, urgently requesting sensitive financial information for a purported confidential project. The email is convincing and includes the company’s logo, but it is a fraudulent attempt to obtain critical financial data.

To detect spear-phishing, be cautious of unexpected emails from unknown sources, especially those urging immediate action. Verify the legitimacy of the sender through official channels before responding or providing any sensitive information.


Whaling is a specialized form of spear-phishing that targets high-level executives, typically CEOs or CFOs, for financial gain or corporate espionage. For example, during 2016, Snapchat encountered a whaling attack. A bad actor sent an email from the CEO to an HR staffer, who unwittingly provided the requested information and ultimately disclosed employee payroll data.

To recognize whaling attempts, pay attention to the urgency and tone of the email. Verify the sender’s identity through secondary means, such as a direct phone call to their certified number, to confirm any unusual requests or directives.


Phishing attacks can extend to text messages, a practice known as smishing. Let’s say you receive a text message claiming to be from a well-known delivery service, informing you of an undelivered package and prompting you to click on a link for more details. Clicking the link redirects you to a fraudulent website that steals your personal information or installs malware on your device.

Stay vigilant when receiving unexpected text messages containing suspicious links or requests for personal information. Avoid clicking on links in unsolicited texts and validate the requests by contacting the organization directly through their authorized channels.


Voice phishing, or vishing, involves fraudulent phone calls that manipulate individuals into revealing sensitive data. Be wary of unsolicited calls requesting personal or financial information. Genuine companies generally do not ask for sensitive data over the phone. Confirm the caller and the purpose of the call before sharing any personal information.

iPhone and Google offer call screen services as an affordable and valuable defense against vishing attacks. These tools are designed to filter incoming calls, allowing users to manage calls effectively. By utilizing call screen services, individuals can identify potential vishing attempts before answering.

Social media phishing

Attackers exploit social media platforms to deceive users into sharing personal information or hijack their accounts. This can often look like a direct message from a seemingly verified social media account, prompting you to click on a link to collect a reward or prize.

Take caution of messages containing suspicious links or login prompts. Confirm the credibility of any requests by cross-checking with the official website or contacting the purported sender directly through secure means.


Pharming is a sophisticated attack that redirects users to fraudulent websites, often through DNS cache poisoning, a type of cyber attack that exploits the vulnerabilities in the DNS protocol to replace a valid IP address in the DNS cache with a malicious one.

To spot pharming attempts, pay attention to and be wary of any unexpected website redirects or changes in website appearance. Always ensure the validity of the website’s URL, especially when entering personal or financial information.

Staying vigilant and informed about the various forms of phishing is crucial in safeguarding personal and corporate data from malicious actors. Remember, when in doubt, always verify before you trust.